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Campaign 1776 Scenario Overviews 

Battle Road, April 19th, 1775 Historical. The British expedition of light infantry and grenadiers had marched to Concord that morning to look for the Rebel's arms and ammunition. Along the way, the first shots of the Revolution had been fired at Lexington Green. Now at Concord, the British force has completed its mission and must return to the safety of Boston. However, the Rebel militia had been called and was responding. The British would find that the march back to Boston would be a long and bloody one.

 The Battle at Bennington, August 16th, 1777 Historical. British General Burgoyne's campaign had been going well. Up to this point, he had taken the mighty Fort Ticonderoga and defeated the American rear guard at Hubbardton. But now he needed additional supplies, particularly horses for his dismounted German dragoons. So an expedition, led by German Lt. Col. Baum, was launched to advance to the town of Bennington. But what was unexpected was the arrival of the American militia, led by veteran fighter Stark. The result was Burgoyne's first setback in his campaign. 

The Battle at Bennington (What-If), August 16th, 1777 What-If. The expedition under Baum had anxiously waited for the relief column from Burgoyne's main army to arrive. Unfortunately, given Breymann's delay, the relief column did not arrive in time and the expedition was destroyed. What would have happened at the Battle of Bennington had the relief column arrived two hours earlier, just as the battle was starting? 

The Battle of Brandywine, September 11th, 1777 Historical. British General Howe began his campaign by taking his army down the American coastline and landing it south of Philadelphia. American General Washington responded in an attempt to block the British advance at the Brandywine Creek. Washington thought he had all of the fords covered, but Howe and Cornwallis crossed at a ford beyond the flank of the American army. The American army was almost destroyed by this attack, but responded in a way that gave the army confidence in its ability to respond to a crisis. 

The Battle of Brandywine (What-If), September 11th, 1777 What-If. When British Generals Howe and Cornwallis marched their force around the right flank of Washington's army at Brandywine, they very nearly destroyed the American army. Washington had not taken action on reports that such a flanking march was possible. But what if Washington had reacted to this knowledge, predicted a possible British flanking attack, and had been ready to guard the upper fords when the attack occurred. What would have been the outcome of the Battle of Brandywine?

 The Battle of Brandywine (What-If), September 11th, 1777 What-If. When American General Washington positioned his army on the banks of the Brandywine Creek, he assumed that British General Howe would attack directly across the creek instead of the flanking march that occurred. What if Howe had acted more conservatively and had in fact attacked Washington directly? Would the result have been more favorable to the Americans? 

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The Battle of Brandywine (What-If), September 11th, 1777 What-If. Washington didn't know of fords upstream from his position when the British attacked his right flank. What if he had learned of these fords and spread his forces out to protect them, but then the British did not act as he believed they would? Against a frontal British attack, would the Americans be too thinly spread to hold? 

The Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17th, 1775 Historical. The clash at Concord and Lexington had started the real fighting in the American Revolution. Both sides knew that a full scale battle was inevitable. The Americans took the first step by occupying the Charlestown peninsula, a move that would force a British response. British General Howe landed a sizeable force on the peninsula later that day, with every expectation of taking the American fortifications on Breeds and Bunker Hill. This he did, but only with a fearful loss of his own soldiers and officers.

 The Battle of Bunker Hill (What-If), June 17th, 1775 What-If. The three British generals in Boston disagreed over how to react to the American taking of the Charlestown peninsula. General Clinton proposed landing on the neck of the peninsula while Howe made a frontal-attack on the American positions. Howe overruled this idea and the full British force was directed at the American fortifications from a single landing area. What if Clinton had been allowed to land behind the Americans as he proposed? Would that have made the difference in the British difficulties? 

The Battle of Camden, August 16th, 1780 Historical. The "Hero of Saratoga", American General Gates was sent south in 1780 to take charge of the southern campaign. There he encountered British General Cornwallis, a veteran fighter from the campaigns in the North. Most of Gates's force consisted of militia, which he assumed would fight properly. Given current convention, they were arrayed on the left flank, the "lesser" flank. Unfortunately, in this position, they faced the British right flank, the "greater" flank of Cornwallis's army. And so when the British advanced, the militia gave way, completely destroying Gates's position and destroying American hopes for success in the South. 

The Battle of Camden (Alt), August 16th, 1780 Alternate. Descriptions of the performance of the American militia vary. According to some accounts, most of the militia, particularly the Virginia militia, dropped their guns and ran without firing a shot. In this scenario, the majority of the militia is setup in a routed state simulating this breakdown.

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 The Battle of Camden (What-If), January 17th, 1781 What-If. In the campaign of 1781, American General Greene elected to let General Cornwallis make the first move offensively. What if Greene had been more aggressive and decided that the time was right to attack the British? Would this battle have turned out as badly for the Americans as the first Battle of Camden the year before? 

The Battle at Charlotte (What-If), January 16th, 1781 What-If. When Greene arrived in Charlotte to take command of the American southern army, he split his forces sending Morgan to the west and the remaining forces to Cheraw Hills. But what if Greene had kept his army intact at Charlotte and British General Cornwallis had decided to attack? Can Greene and his modest force withstand an attack by British regulars?

 The Battle at Charlotte (What-If), January 16th, 1781 What-If. A hypothetical clash between the American army under Greene and a portion of the British army under Cornwallis near Charlotte. The Battle at Charlotte (What-If), January 30th, 1781 What-If. A follow-up scenario to the hypothetical battle at Cheraw Hills where the British army under Cornwallis has pursued the retreating American army to Charlotte and there attacks it. 

The Battle at Charlotte (What-If), January 30th, 1781 What-If. A follow-up scenario to the hypothetical battle at Cheraw Hills where the British army under Cornwallis has pursued the retreating American army to Charlotte and there attacks it. In this version, both sides have been rejoined by their light detachments. 

The Battle at Cheraw Hills (What-If), January 18th, 1781 What-If. When American General Greene split his force after arriving at Charlotte, he believed that his main position at Cheraw Hills was a strong one and that British General Cornwallis would not dare to attack him there. But what if Cornwallis, after sending Tarleton to deal with Morgan, had decided to attack the small American force at Cheraw Hills. Could Greene withstand an attack by the British army? 

The Battle at Cowpens, January 17th, 1781 Historical. American General Greene had done something incredible. He had split his army and sent Morgan with a detachment to the west while he and the rest of the American army had marched to the east. British General Cornwallis thought he had Morgan trapped by sending Tarleton with a detachment to catch and destroy Morgan. But Morgan turned and confronted Tarleton at the Cowpens, and gave the American rebellion a much needed victory in the South. Note: this scenario is particularly suited for the Rifle Fire Effects Optional Rule. 

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The Battle of Eutaw Springs, September 8th, 1781 Historical. American General Greene was continuing his campaign in the South that had begun with the Battle of Guilford Court House. He had not won a single battle, but was systematically driving the British out of the Carolinas. Finally he met the remainder of the British force at Eutaw Springs on the road to Charleston. While this also did not produce a victory, it was the last straw for the British who withdrew to Charleston. Greene had demonstrated his words "We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again".

 The Siege of Fort Stanwix (What-If), August, 1777 What-If. Historically the American relief column to Fort Stanwix was ambushed and turned back at Oriskany. What if the column had gotten through without being attack and had then launched an attack on the British forces besieging the fort? Can the siege of the fort be lifted? 

The Battle of Fort Ticonderoga (What-If), July 4th, 1777 What-If. When the British under General Burgoyne placed cannon on Mount Defiance, the American army under General St. Clair abandoned Fort Ticonderoga without a fight. What if St. Clair had stood his ground and the British had decided on an attack? Could the American continentals and milita withstand a combined attack from the British and German regulars? 

The Battle of Germantown, October 4th, 1777 Historical. After the defeat at Brandywine, the American army under General George Washington was forced to abandon Philadelphia, the capitol of the new country, to Howe's British Army. But Washington retook the initiative with a surprise attack on the British base at Germantown, just outside Philadelphia. This attack, although unsuccessful, proved that the American army was still capable of waging war against the British. 

The Battle of Germantown (What-If), October 4th, 1777 What-If. After the victory at Brandywine, British General Howe occupied Philadelphia assured that he had been victorious in the campaign. But Washington, unwilling to accept defeat, launched a surprise attack on Howe's camps at Germantown. What if Howe had not been so confident of victory and was in fact moving his arrmy towards Washington to resume the fighting?

 The Battle of Guilford Court House, March 15th, 1781 Historical. After the Battle of Cowpens, American General Greene and his army had escaped the pursuing Cornwallis and retreated into Virginia. But now, with reinforcements available, the time had come for Greene to confront Cornwallis for control of the South. Greene picked a site near Greensboro, where he felt he could make a stand. Learning from Morgan, Greene placed his force in three lines, two of militia and a third of regulars. But would that be enough to withstand the British force under Cornwallis, and how far would Cornwallis go to achieve victory? Note: this scenario should be played with the Cornwallis Cannon Optional Rule. 

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The Battle of Guilford CH (What-If), February 14th, 1781 What-If. American General Greene fell back to Guilford Court House after his detachment under Morgan had won a victory at Cowpens. What if Greene had fallen back to Guilford Court House as part of his original campaign and there met the British? Would the eventual fate of Cornwallis and his army have been the same?

 The Battle of Guilford CH (What-If), February 7th, 1781 What-If. A follow-up scenario to the hypothetical battle at Cheraw Hills, where Greene has fallen back to Guilford Court House and is joined by Morgan's detachment. There, they are attacked by Cornwallis, but he does not have Tarleton's forces. 

The Battle of Guilford Court House (What-If), February 7th, 1781 What-If. A follow-up scenario to the hypothetical Battle of Cheraw Hills, where Greene and his army has fallen back to Guilford Court House where it is attacked by the full British army under Cornwallis.

 The Battle of Guilford CH (What-If), February 15, 1781 What-If. After the victory at Cowpens, Greene scrambled to retreat into Virginia ahead of the rapidly advancing Cornwallis. If Greene had been caught, or decided to make a stand, what would the outcome of the battle have been like? 

The Battle of Hobkirk Hill, April 25th, 1781 Historical. After the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, the British army under General Cornwallis slipped away to rest on the North Carolina coast. But American General Greene still had fight left in him. With his small but experienced army, he marched into South Carolina to confront the British garrison at Camden. Although the battle was a British victory, Greene had started the campaign that would eventually win the South for the American cause, without winning a single battle.

 The Battle at Hubbardton, July 7th, 1777 Historical. After pressuring the American garrison at Fort Ticonderoga to withdraw, the British army under General Burgoyne wanted to inflict a loss on the retreating Americans. His advance guard got that chance just outside the town of Hubbardton, in present-day Vermont. However, the Americans fought back well and stood their ground until German reinforcements arrived and forced the issue. The Americans had shown that they were willing to fight given the chance. 

The Battle of Kings Mountain, October 7th, 1780 Historical. British Major Patrick Ferguson had thrown down the gauntlet. His force of Loyalists, on the left flank of Cornwallis's main army, had marched deep into Rebel territory and enraged many of the people who lived there. In response, a force of militiamen from far around the countryside had marched to confront Ferguson. That confrontation would take place on a "royal" mountain in South Carolina and would mark the beginning of the Patriot victory in the South.

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 The Battle of Monmouth, June 28th, 1778 Historical. The British army was pursued by the American army under General George Washington as it left Philadelphia in the Summer of 1778. Washington sent an advance force under General Lee to look for opportunities to attack the rear guard of the British. However, the tables were turned on the Americans as British General Cornwallis struck Lee and forced him back. Washington arrived with the rest of the army to halt the British advance, but not before imparting some choice words to General Lee. Note: the cover painting "George Washington at Monmouth" by Andy Thomas illustrates the meeting of Washington and Lee at Monmouth. 

The Siege of Ninety Six (What-If), May - June 1781 What-If. Historically, when Greene's army arrived at Ninety Six, it was unable to overcome the defenders of the garrison. Despite this, after Greene retreated from Ninety Six, the British garrison withdrew from the isolated outpost. What if a pitched battle had been fought to decide the fate of Ninety Six? Could the British have prevailed in that clash? 

The Ambush at Oriskany, August 6th, 1777 Historical. As part of Burgoyne's strategy for taking the northern theater, a British force under St. Leger besieges Fort Stanwix and threatens control of the Hudson River valley. A relief force of Americans marches to the fort's aid, but along the trail is ambushed by a force of Tories and Indians. Although the relief force is turned back with heavy losses, Fort Stanwix remains in American control. 

The Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777 Historical. After the surprise attack on Trenton, British general Cornwallis reacted by marching his force to Trenton to confront the American army. However, General Washington surprised the British by secretly marching his army to Princeton where it encountered a small British reserve force. But this small force contested the Americans and disrupted their escape. 

The Battle of Rhode Island, August 28-29th, 1778 Historical. The American victory at Saratoga had convinced the French to join the Americans in their fight for independence. The Rhode Island campaign was to be their first joint effort involving French and American land and sea forces. Unfortunately, John Sullivan, leading the American army, advanced too quickly and motivated d'Estaing, the French naval commander, to withdraw from the operation. Now Sullivan, the attacker becoming the attacked, withdraws from Newport and is attacked by the advancing British.

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 The First Battle of Saratoga, September 19th, 1777 Historical. British general Burgoyne had successfully fought his way south from Canada in his campaign against the Americans. Fort Ticonderoga had fallen to his army and now he was preparing to continue his advance to Albany, New York. But the American army under General Gates stood in his way at Saratoga. The British and American armies advance on each other in the First Battle of Saratoga.

 The Second Battle of Saratoga, October 7th, 1777 Historical. After the initial setback at the First Battle of Saratoga, the British army under General Burgoyne stopped and dug in on the Bemis Heights. Burgoyne anxiously awaited news of the advance of the British army under Clinton in New York north to his aid. In a last chance effort to break the stalemate, Burgoyne advanced a force to take the high ground overlooking the American position. But along the way, this force was met by an equally aggressive American force intent on breaking the British position. And with the leadership of American General Benedict Arnold, that's what they would achieve.

 The First Battle of Saratoga (What-If), Sept. 19th, 1777 What-If. When the British army under Burgoyne advanced on the American position at Saratoga, General Arnold convinced Gates to let him advance from the American positions and meet the British head-on. But what would the outcome have been if Arnold had not been allowed to advance? Would the Americans have prevailed? 

The First Battle of Saratoga (What-If), Sept. 19th, 1777 What-If. The British advanced against the American left flank at the First Battle of Saratoga and General Arnold advanced to meet them. If the British had attacked along the river road, would staying in the fortifications have been a better strategy?

 The First Battle of Saratoga (What-If), Sept. 19th, 1777 What-If. When General Arnold convinced Gates to allow him to advance beyond the American fortifications, it was to meet a British advance on the left flank. If the British had decided to advance on the river road, would Arnold have been so eager?

 The Second Battle of Saratoga (What-If), Oct. 7th, 1777 What-If. When the British advanced at the beginning of the Second Battle of Saratoga, General Arnold "convinced" Gates to allow him to advance against them with a sizeable force. This force counterattacked and drove the British back to their fortifications and beyond. What if Arnold had not been so convincing? Would the Americans have prevailed that day? 

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The Second Battle of Saratoga (What-If), Oct. 7th, 1777 What-If. After the initial setback at the First Battle of Saratoga, the British entrenched and then launched a second attack on the American left flank. Would an attack along the river road have resulted in a better outcome for the British? 

The Second Battle of Saratoga (What-If), Oct. 7th, 1777 What-If. If the British had launched their second attack at Saratoga along the river road instead of at the American left flank, would the Americans have been smarter to have remained inside the fortifications as Gates wanted rather than advancing as Arnold wished?

 The Battle of Trenton, December 26th, 1776 Historical. On the morning after Christmas, 1776, the battered army of George Washington slipped across the Delaware River and launched a surprise attack on the Hessian garrison at Trenton, New Jersey. In a daring move, Washington retook the initiative after a year of being defeated by the British army.

 The Battle of Trenton (Alt), December 26th, 1776 Alternate. The American attack on the morning of December 26th took the Hessians in Trenton by surprise. This scenario begins with the Hessian units in a routed state to simulate that surprise. 

The Attack on Valley Forge (What-If), Spring, 1778 What-If. After taking Philadelphia, the British were not able to resolve their campaign successfully and finally, in the Summer of 1778, decided to withdraw from Philadelphia to their base at New York. But what if the British had acted more aggressively and decided to attack Washington's army at Valley Forge? With their backs to the river, can Washington's army hold off a full-scale attack? 

The Siege of Yorktown (What-If), September, 1781 What-If. When the combined American and French armies arrived at Yorktown, British General Cornwallis withdrew his army from their outer defenses to the inner works around Yorktown. This resulted in the siege of Yorktown by the Americans and French resulting in the eventual surrender of the British on October 17th. What if Cornwallis had retained his outer works and this had prompted an assault by the Americans and French on the fortifications. Could this assault have taken Yorktown and thus resulted in the defeat of the British? 

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